Study Questions 2.2
After reading the selection from Book IV of the Republic, by Plato, provide written answers to the following questions. Please give complete answers in complete sentences.
1. What are the three main parts of the soul, as identified in the selection? What is the virtue distinctive to each?
2. What is justice, according to the selection? How is justice in the individual soul similar to justice in the state?
3. What is injustice, according to the selection? How is injustice in the individual soul similar to justice in the state?
4. What is the relationship of justice in the soul to health in the body, and of injustice in the soul to disease in the body?
After reading the assigned chapters from Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, by Aristotle, provide written answers to the following questions. Please give complete answers in complete sentences.
5. What does Aristotle say is “the highest of all the goods achievable by action”? In what way does he say common opinion concurs with his conclusion concerning the highest good, and in what way is there lack of consensus on this point?
6. What three ways of life does Aristotle present as candidates for the most desirable life? What fourth way of life does he dismiss from candidacy and why?
7. What distinction does Aristotle make between final ends and ends which are not final, and what kind of end does he say the highest good must be?
8. What does Aristotle conclude is the best good for a human being, and how does he arrive at this conclusion?
9. How does Aristotle define happiness at the beginning of chapter 13? How does he relate happiness to virtue, and how does he decide what virtue must be for a human being?