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Discussion 4 Apa format

4 Discussions
Discussion 1: You’re the Editor
The APA Publication Manual is an essential reference guide for all students and practitioners in the social and behavioral sciences. The purpose of this Discussion is to assist you in becoming familiar with and applying key parts of the manual. For this Discussion, you will play the role of an editor who must provide feedback to the writer, identifying and correcting flaws in the writer’s use of citations, quotes, and references. How would you make the writer’s work reflect the language of the profession?
To prepare for this Discussion:

View the video APA Citations Part I: The Methods to the Madness, and read the Study Notes from the Learning Resources.
Become familiar with the APA Publication Manual; review Chapter 6, “Crediting Sources,” and Chapter 7, “Reference Examples,” and note their contents and the variety of topics covered.
Review the “Assignment Sheet: Social Change” document (located in this week’s Learning Resources area) for an excerpt that includes quotes, paraphrased information, and reference information without format.
Review the Course Announcement from your Instructor about the peer-review process, and note the colleagues that you have been paired with.

With these thoughts in mind:
Complete the following steps by Day 3:
Step 1: Select one paragraph from the Social Change excerpt to edit. This document is found in the Learning Resources.
Step 2: Referring to Chapter 6 of the APA Publication Manual, revise the paragraph in correct APA format, rewriting the citations, quotations, and references as necessary. Use the references listed for your paragraph number as your citation sources.
Step 3: For this Discussion, the references for each paragraph are listed in the Social Change excerpt. These references are not in correct APA format. Using the information from Chapter 7 of the APA Publication Manual, put the references for your paragraph in correct APA format.
Step 4: Post your edited paragraph and references to the Discussion 1 board.

American Psychological Association. (2010b). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Chapter 6, “Crediting Sources” (pp. 169–192)
Chapter 7, “Reference Examples” (pp. 193–224)
These chapters describe how to credit sources in APA style

Document: Study Notes: Ten Common APA Points (PDF)

Study Notes
Ten Common APA Points 
From the Walden Writing Center (http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/17.htm) 
Use a 12-point serif font for all text, including what appears on your cover page and reference list. Walden prefers Times New Roman. Minimum 8-point type can be used in tables and figures. 
2. Spacing 
Double space all text, including the reference list and block quotes. Per APA, use two spaces after a sentence; however, Walden will accept the use of one space after a period. 
3. Margins, Page Numbers, and Running Head 
All margins should be set to 1” on each side of the paper. Page numbers go in the upper right corner. The running head goes in the upper left corner and is in all capital letters. The words “Running head:” appear only on the cover page. 
4. Boldface and Underlines 
Do not use underlines. APA does not allow boldface except in tables and figures (in rare instances where you would want to highlight specific data) and for Level 1, 2, 3, and 4 headings. 
5. Punctuation
APA requires the use of the serial (or Oxford) comma in lists of three or more items 
(e.g., Groucho, Harpo, and Zeppo). 
Most prefixes are not hyphenated: semistructured, nondenominational, multimedia, antisocial, posttest, pretest, and so forth. 
6. Capitalization 
Do not capitalize job titles unless immediately preceding a person’s name: the superintendent, but Superintendent Williams; the vice president of the school board,but Vice President Agnew. Additionally, do not capitalize the names of theories, models, conditions, or diseases. 
7. Lists (Seriation) 
Seriation refers to how to list information. Within a paragraph, list items that must appear in a certain order using (a), (b), and (c). 
If you do not need to imply a particular order, then remove the letters and/or use bullet points. Use vertical lists when expressing information that must appear in a certain order (e.g., steps in a procedure or itemized conclusions). 
8. Numbers and Percentages 
Numbers 10 and higher appear as numerals; nine and lower are written out. There are exceptions: precise elements of time, age, distance, ratios, and percentages always appear as numerals unless at the start of a sentence. 
9. Latin Abbreviations 
Do not use Latin abbreviations (like e.g., i.e., and etc.) within the text of the sentence; APA only allows these types of abbreviations within parentheses. In the text of the sentence, write out the abbreviation’s English translation. 
10. Use Respectful, Bias-Free Language 
The APA manual outlines important information concerning avoiding bias with respect to gender, race, disabilities, and so forth. When discussing different racial groups, make sure that your terms are parallel. When possible, avoid the generic
pronouns he and she, or he/she by using they. 
Document: Assignment Sheet: Social Change (Word Document)
Assignment Sheet
Week 4
Social Change

1. Several key individuals and ideas that have shaped the philosophy of social change. The first of these is Mahatma Gandhi. According to Kapadia, Gandhi believed that ideas and ideals had no value if they were not translated into action. Gandhi talked frequently about social change and service to others: The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others. Implementing positive social change can be a difficult process. Gandhi was asked why people should not just achieve their goals by any means necessary. He believed that the means are connected to the end. Gandhi wrote: every problem lends itself to solution if we are determined to make the law of truth and nonviolence the law of life. According to Pal, Gandhi influenced many important social change movements and leaders. Some leaders who have acknowledged his influence are: Dr. Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, the Dalai Lama, Aung San Suu Kyi and Rigoberta Menchu. 
2. Another world leader who spent most of his life fighting for social change was Nelson Mandela. As described in information related to a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) Frontline special on Mandela, not everyone is able to see the results of their hard-fought efforts in their lifetimes. Sometimes, they can only lay the groundwork for the next generation. Mandela was able to lead and experience this transformation in South Africa which brought an end to apartheid and now has a constitution that guarantees the rights of all people. According to Mendoza Mandela believed in the importance of changing yourself first and said, one of the most difficult things is not to change society — but to change yourself.
3. In our country, Dr. King embraced the tenets of non-violence in his leadership within the civil rights movement and enduring philosophy for bringing about social change. He wrote about his those who inspired his philosophy of nonviolent social change and Gandhi was a significant influence. According to Pal, King took a month-long trip to India in 1959 in order to visit the country of his inspiration. The King Center is dedicated to preserving his legacy and provide ongoing support for social change. Based on Dr. King’s teachings, The King Center published, Six Steps of Nonviolent Social Change. These six steps are: information gathering, education, personal commitment, negotiation, direct action, and reconciliation.
4. Social change is a founding value and educational goal at Walden University as expressed in the Mission and Vision statements, and incorporated in every course curriculum. The Walden Vision statement reads as follows: Walden University envisions a distinctively different 21st-century learning community where knowledge is judged worthy to the degree that it can be applied by its graduates to the immediate solutions of critical societal challenges, thereby advancing the greater global good. While bringing about social change on either a micro or macro level can be daunting, Mandela was quoted as saying: It always seems impossible until it’s done. The teachings of Gandhi, Mandela, King and many others continue to influence new generations of scholars and social change practitioners. 

References for Paragraph 1
Author: A. Pal Date: Jan 24, 2008. Title of article: 60 years after death, Gandhi is Making world a better Place. Published in: The Progressive. Website:http://www.progressive.org/mag_wxap012408
Mahatma Gandhi. 1961. Book title: Non-violent Resistance. City: New York Publisher: Schocken Books.
S. Kapadia, (n.d.). Article title: A Tribute to Mahatma Gandhi: His Views on Women and Social Change. Website: https://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/kapadia.htm 
Goodreads. No date. Mahatma Gandhi quotes. Website: https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/11416-the-best-way-to-find-yourself-is-to-lose-yourself
References for Paragraph 2
Frontline. Date: May 25, 1999). Title: The Long walk of Nelson Mandela: Viewers’ and Teachers’ Guide. Website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/mandela/teach/
Author: Dorris Mendoza Date: December 16, 2013. Article Title: 9 simple ways to keep Nelson Mandela’s Legacy alive. Website: http://www.cnn.com/2013/12/16/living/keeping-mandelas-legacy-alive/
References for Paragraph 3
Author: A. Pal Date: Jan 24, 2008. Title of article: 60 years after death, Gandhi is Making world a better Place. Published in: The Progressive. Website:http://www.progressive.org/mag_wxap012408
The King Center. No date. Title: Six steps of nonviolent Social Change. website: http://www.thekingcenter.org/king-philosophy
References for Paragraph 4
Goodreads. No date. Nelson Mandela Quotes. Website:
This document will be used for your Discussion assignments this week.
Document:APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness Program Transcript 
BRITTANY KALLMAN ARNESON: You have logged into “APA Citations Part 1.” I’m joined tonight by my fellow tutors, Anne and Rachel. They’re going to be answering questions for you tonight. So thank you to both of them in advance. And our basic goal for tonight is to clear up some of the confusing parts of APA references from the reference list and citations in your paper. 
OK, so just a little bit of housekeeping before we get started. As I said, we have two facilitators, Anne and Rachel, who are going to be answering questions for you tonight. And if you have questions throughout the presentation, you can type them in the questions box that you’ll see in your go-to webinar panel. And you will receive an answer typed in that box as well. 
I will stop a couple of different times throughout the presentation and ask the facilitators to tell me some questions that have been coming up a lot. So we’ll answer some of the more common questions out loud in the presentation. But if you do have a burning question that you need to ask right away, or if you are having trouble or having technical difficulties, feel free to type in that question box. 
Anne is posting some links now. One is to access the captioning for this recording. So you can find that there in the chat box. You’ll also see the link where you can download the slides from this presentation so that you can have those as a reference for later. And we are recording the session tonight. The recording will be available on our website after, of course, of the presentation is finished. And you will be able to go back and download that and access this presentation later. Or if you want to refer to a friend who wasn’t able to make it tonight, they’re welcome to view that as well. 
I do also want to mention that we have a hand out, a resource that goes with this presentation. That’s also available on our website. So I encourage all of you to access that as well. It’s a handy reference, a flow chart that will help you access some of our referenced resources and make use of some of the things that we learn tonight. 
OK, so here’s what we’re going to talk about this evening. We’re going to start by just asking this question that you’ve probably all asked yourself before, but maybe not out loud. Why do we use APA? What is the point of APA? We’re going to start by talking about that. Then we’re going to look at the different parts of a reference list entry in APA. 
After that, we’re going to take a look at citations both the in-text citations and parenthetical citations– so the way that you give credit to sources in your paper. 
APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness 

And then we’re going to do some practicing, taking information out of references and turning it into citations. 
And then, as I said, we will have time at the end for some questions. And I’m going to stop in the middle of the presentation for questions as well just in case there’s anything that people maybe would forget about before the end of the presentation. 
So here’s this question– what’s the point of APA? And, again, I have a feeling that many of you have asked yourselves this question, but maybe you haven’t felt comfortable asking your instructor or writing center staff. It’s a valid question. Why are we using all these rules about formatting, about citations, about references? Why does it matter? And what’s it useful for? 
We all like to know why rules exist and what the point of those rules is. So the very first reason that we use as a formatting style for scholarly work and at Walden is because it helps your readers focus on your ideas and not formatting errors. So it’s basically a way to get rid of all of that noise that might distract your reader from the most important thing that you want to communicate to them, which is your ideas. 
You don’t want them to be distracted because they’re confused. They can’t figure out why you formatted something a certain way. Or they don’t understand where to find certain information. Instead, you just want to make sure that there is a blanket style, that it’s uniform, so that everybody understands that’s how we do it. We don’t have to think about it anymore. And now we can just focus on the ideas. 
The second reason is that APA, as a citation style, is specifically designed to communicate information about your field, about the social sciences, to an audience of scholars in your same field. So there are many different citation styles. Walden has chosen APA, because the rules are designed specifically, again, for the social sciences and disciplines related to the social sciences. So it’s actually the most appropriate style to use for the disciplines that Walden students are researching. 
So some of you might have used other styles in other degree programs, maybe in undergrad, maybe if you’re a doctoral student, maybe in your master’s degree. You may have used a different style from APA. And this can get really confusing, because we often see in journals references formatted in different ways. They’re not always all in APA. 
So I wanted to show you a couple of other citation styles as well to contrast with APA. So this first reference, you’ll see here, is in APA format– proper APA format. But the second one is in what’s called MLA format. A lot of us in the writing center have degrees in English. This is the style that we used in our English degrees that a lot of different humanities disciplines use. 
APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness 

So you’ll see it looks different from the APA citation or the APA reference. It has some different formatting rules. And then this bottom one is in what’s called Chicago style. This is another formatting publication style. And it’s used often in journalism– sometimes in history. 
So again, you’ll see that it doesn’t look the same. It doesn’t have the same formatting rules. There are some different punctuation, different capitalization, and italics that you don’t see in APA. So don’t assume if you see a formatted reference that it’s formatted in APA style. 
All right, so we’re going to start and just go systematically through the different portions of journal article reference in APA. And I will explain the different parts as we go through. And then we’ll do an exercise at the end to practice taking some information from the journal and putting it into a reference in APA format. 
So you’ll see the very first thing that appears in a reference in APA is the author’s name. This is a made-up reference. So don’t go looking for it in the Walden library. But here’s the author’s name. Kallman is the surname and B, we have the first initial of the author’s first name as well. And you’ll notice that the surname and the first initial are separated by a comma. 
So in your reference list, your references are going to be alphabetized by author last name. And this is primarily why the author’s last name comes first, because it’s the easiest way to organize references in a reference list. So you are going to start with A. You’re going to go through Z. And you may not have references that cover every letter in the alphabet. But you do want to alphabetize your references in your reference list. 
Now, you’ll notice that in this slide, the last name of the author is hanging off the left-hand edge of the reference a little bit. And this is called a hanging indent. In Microsoft Word, when you format your references, the hanging indent is actually flush with the left-hand margin. So that author name is going to be flush with the left-hand margin of your page. Every other line of the reference is going to be indented half an inch. 
Now, the reason for this is basically just to save space. So instead of having to put a whole bunch of space between each reference so that your reader knows where one reference and then the next one begins, we see that the next reference is starting because the next author’s name is hanging off the edge there a little bit. So that’s the purpose of the hanging indent. 
All right, so why do we only put the author’s last name and first initial in APA formatted references when some of those other citation styles might use just the last name or the whole name when there are so many different ways to do it. Why does AP do it this way? 
APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness 

Well, the first reason is because social scientists are primarily concerned with examining trends in data rather than following the work of an individual author. Now, this isn’t to say that you might not find somebody who’s doing research that you find really fascinating or really relevant to your own work. And you might want to follow their research over time. You definitely may want to do that. 
But there’s a little bit of a difference between the way the author’s personal identity is connected to their work in the social sciences versus, say, a novelist, whose personal identity is very much attached to their work. And you always say the name of the novel and an author’s name together. 
So part of the reason why we only list the author’s last name is because it’s primarily a tool to alphabetize. And we’re not linking the work to the author’s personal identity. Again, a social science audience really doesn’t need to know the author’s first name because again, the data that they’re producing is the primary thing that a social science audience is interested in. 
Finally, it can help avoid bias. So you don’t necessarily know the gender of the author because you don’t have the full first name. You only have a initial. It helps you to view the source in a more objective way. 
So our next component of an APA reference is going to be the publication year. And you’ll see it’s bolded here in this sample reference. So for almost all publications, you’re only going to include the publication year. However, for periodicals such as magazines and newspapers, you do also include the month, that’s for magazines, inside these parentheses. And for newspapers, you’ll include the day or the date. 
And this is because you want to make sure that you are including information that tells the reader how the source is categorized, because a periodical is often published more often, a magazine is published monthly, and it’s identified by the name of the month rather than a volume number, that’s why you put that there. And same with a newspaper. 
A newspaper is usually a daily publication. So you want to include the day and the date in there as well. That’s to help the reader retrieve the original source if they want it. 
Now, here’s a little trick that you might not know about. If you can’t find the year for a source, some sources may not have a publication year linked to them. This most often happens with websites. And if you can’t find the year, you can simply put the letters n.d., as you see here, which stands for No Date inside those parentheses. 
APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness 

So you want them to be lowercase. You want them to be punctuated by two periods after the two letters. And that’s going to tell the reader there is no date for this reference. Don’t go looking for it. 
So why is the publication year so important? Why does it take such a place of prominence in the reference? The first reason is because recent studies are so important in the disciplines that we’re working in here at Walden. As you all know in your courses, recent studies are highly emphasized as an important part of your research, making sure that the research that you’re basing your own arguments upon is not outdated in any way. 
So a study published in 1940 is not equal to a study published in 2011. Now, this isn’t to say that you won’t necessarily use studies that were published earlier. There are, of course, many times when you might want to use a seminal work of somebody who had a groundbreaking theory that other people then built upon later on. 
But, again, it’s important to know if that study is a seminal study that was conducted many years ago or if it’s something that’s more recent. So that’s the first reason. 
The year of the study can help the reader evaluate its relevance to their own research. So if somebody is reading your paper, they can see that the year is right there. And that can help them decide if this study that you’re referencing is also relevant to their own research based on how current it is. 
And, again, in the social sciences, the year of the study was published is almost more important than the author’s personal identity. It’s definitely equally important to the author’s personal identity. So it takes that prominent place in the reference. 
OK, so after the author’s name and the publication year, we have the rest of the reference. Now, the reason I grouped these all together is because there is less explanation for why these components are formatted the way that they are, although there are reasons behind certain parts of them. For instance, you’ll see the next component there is the title of the article, the book, or the web page. In this case, it’s an article. And the title is “Chocolate as a critical component of effective paper writing.” 
Now, you’ll see that the article title here is in sentence case. And that means that only the first letter of the first word. And then you don’t see it here. But if you had a colon in this title, the first word after the colon would have the first letter capitalized. And any proper nouns are still capitalized. So names of states or names of people all are still capitalized. 
But everything else is lowercase. And this is because social science article titles are written to be purely informative. They’re written to help the reader understand 
APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness 

exactly what the content and focus of that particular article is. And in sentence case, it’s easier for the eye to scan for that information. Our eye is used to scanning a sentence for information in a paragraph. So sentence case makes it easy to scan the article title in the reference. 
Then we have the journal title which you’ll see is in title case. So again, this makes sense the journal title is in title case. Title case means all the important words are capitalized. Only the small words like “of” and “and” don’t get capitalized in title case. 
Then we have the volume, issue, and page numbers. And this is the part where I just don’t have a good explanation for why these are formatted the way that they are. Certainly, they’re formatted to help the eye scan them easily to differentiate between the different portions. You’ll notice that the volume number, which is that 5 there, is a italicized. Whereas the issue number is not italicized and is parentheses. So we can easily tell which is which. 
And then after that, the page range, 12 through 16, is separate from that with a comma and has the dash to show that it’s a range. But other than that, I don’t have any real magical explanations for why APA has chosen to format this information in this way. This is a part that is probably best just to memorize and not worry too much about. 
The last component is either a DOI or a URL. Now, I get a lot of questions, and we all do in the writing center, about DOIs. And they can be confusing at first. But they’re actually pretty simple. DOI is an acronym. It stands for Digital Object Identifier. And it’s basically just a number that has been assigned to an online article that’s permanent. 
It’s not going to change. It’s very stable. And this is to ensure that even in a few years time if somebody accesses your work, they can find this article using this DOI, because it’s not going to change. Now, not every online article has been assigned a DOI. So if you can’t find the DOI for a particular source, then you want to include the URL for the journal home page. 
Now, this is for journal articles only– digital journal articles. And this is a role that is new for the sixth edition of the APA manual. So if you were working in the fifth edition, you weren’t using this rule. This is a change. But Walden is using the sixth edition now. So this is the way that Walden is doing it now. You’re going to have to go to Google and type in the name of the journal. And just find the home page for that journal. 
So here, our journal is a made-up journal. But it’s the Journal of Writing and Dessert. I wish this journal wasn’t made up. I think it sounds brilliant. But it is something that you do need to search for on the internet. And once you find that 
APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness 

homepage, that’s what you have fluid at the end of your reference. And we’ll talk about that a little bit more later as well. 
OK, so by now, I hope that you’re having a little bit of an aha moment APA. I hope you’re realizing that APA formatting rules aren’t as random as they seem to be at first that they maybe are a little bit more deliberate that they have a little bit more purpose behind them. 
And then I hope also that you’re realizing that following these rules correctly can help you communicate your specific content to fellow scholars in your field. So APA really is a tool that you can use to help you format your references in a way that is going to communicate your information effectively and efficiently to your audience rather than just being a bunch of boring rules that somebody created to give you a headache. 
All right, so we’re going to do a little practice test now about moving data from its raw state into an APA reference. This can be the hardest part sometimes of formatting a reference. You might say, well, I know exactly what an APA reference is supposed to look like. But how do I find that information to plug into the different sections? Right? Where do I find the DOI? Where do I find the journal title? Where do I find volume number? 
So we’re going to look at this sample. This is just taken in from the JSTOR database, which is a database that Walden has access to. Now, not every database is going to look the same. So if you’re using JSTOR, you’ll see something that looks very similar to this. But you might be using EBSCO, or Eric, or another database. There are a lot of databases that you have access to through Walden. And they vary by discipline. So keep in mind that there will be citation information on your database. But it may not look exactly like it does in this slide in a different database. 
OK? So what is that first element of an APA reference? It’s the author last name, right? So we want to look for those author’s names first. And here they are– Michelle Cox, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper, and Katherine E. Tirabassi are the authors of this article. Now, you’ll see if this isn’t the same as APA format. Their first names are in there. And their last name not listed before their first initial. So this is, again, that raw data that you’re going to have to pull out of whatever source you’re looking at. And then you have to manipulate it into APA format. OK? 
So our next element of an APA reference is our publication year. And you’ll see it’s down here tucked in with the volume number. And there’s a month in there that we know isn’t supposed to be there in APA. So, again, you’re pulling this out of something that’s not an APA. You’re finding these different components that you know the APA reference needs. And you’re pulling them into that proper format. 
APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness 

Next, we need the title of the article, because that’s the next element in an APA reference. So you’ll see it’s here. It’s also over here. And you’ll notice that it is in title case, not sentence case, as it should be in an APA reference. So you’re going to keep all the words, all the letters, all the punctuation. But you’re going to remove those capital letters from the beginnings of the words that shouldn’t have capital letters in sentence case, again, manipulating the raw data into APA. 
Then you need the journal information. So that’s over here. Again, you see the journal part is correct in APA. It’s italicized. It’s in title case. But then we’ve got all this other extra weird stuff. We have VOL for volume and O for the issue number. We’ve got, again, that May– month in there. We know we don’t need that. And then we have some two Ps for page numbers. And that isn’t something that belongs in an APA reference either. So don’t be swayed by that. Just because it’s on our database homepage doesn’t mean that it’s proper APA format. You get to do that yourself. 
And finally, I wanted to point out I oftentimes on journal websites or database websites, you will see a URL like this. And it even says stable URL here. Now, this is the URL to the database location for the article. And the reason that APA doesn’t have you include that your URL is just because they want to make this access as universal as possible. And they know that not everybody has the same access to the same databases. 
So you at Walden have access to a certain number of databases through the Walden library. But other universities have different database descriptions. Or somebody might be looking at your reference list who isn’t currently affiliated with the university and might not have access, So the idea behind using the journal home page is to try and make this information as universally accessible as possible. 
OK, so how would we take the information that we just looked at on this page and format it into an APA reference for this source? In a minute, I’m going to switch slides. And we’re going to do a poll. So I’m going to have you vote. So I just want you to take another quick look at this slide before I move on to the next one. 
So I want you to take a look at these three references and decide which one is the correct way to format an APA reference for the source that we just looked at on the previous slide. Based on the information that we talked about at the beginning of the presentation, which one looks like it is in the appropriate format for APA. And after you look at this, memorize which letter, A, B, or C is the one that you think is correct that you want to vote for, because this slide is going to go away when I ask Anne to pull up our poll, which I’m going to do in just a minute. 
So take a look, and make your choice, and keep it in your head. And then I’ll have Anne call up the poll. And we will have you vote. OK, I’ll give you a couple 
APA Citations Part 1: Method



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